Multiple choice single answer exercise 4

Free PTE reading practice 8 Multi choice single answerFor this free PTE reading practice, we will look at multiple questions which have single answers. For this question type, you are given a text up to 300 words long, and will need to select the correct answer. You only need to select one answer.

Here’s a practice exercise to test your skills this with PTE question type.

Cryptology is the study of writing in codes, so that only the intended recipient of the message is able to read it. Interestingly, it has been put forward that one of the very first forms of an encrypted message was a basic written text, because most people at that time could not read, and therefore its contents were unknown. Cryptography, from the Greek for hidden and writing, is the creation of codes, while encryption is the actual changing of standard text to coded text. Cryptanalysis is, then, the analytical reading of a coded message to understand its message, often by a third, or unintended, party. All these words are centred around the same basic meaning, a coded message, but with a subtle difference as regards the stage of the equation.

Cryptography remained in relatively basic forms for a thousand years, when in the Arab world, more advanced codes were devised, and a mathematician named Al-Kindi authored a book outlining all the known cryptanalysis techniques, including mono- and polyalphabetic ciphers, classifications and introduced the descriptions of frequency analysis, that is, understanding the frequency of certain letters and keys to help decipher codes. These were focused on the Arabic language, but his concepts were then extended to cover other languages as well. By the 15th century, advanced polyalphabetic ciphers were being developed, perhaps the most famous by the Frenchman Blaise de Vigenere, who came up with a working system, named after him, the Vigenere Cipher. At the same time, and advancing Al-Kindi’s earlier work, the Italian Leon Battista Alberti analysed and published information regarding polyalphabetic ciphers, and has since been called the ‘Father of western cryptology’.

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Free PTE reading practice questions:

Cryptography remained relatively unchanged for a thousand years _________
because most people at that time could not read
because languages were so different no standard practice could be applied.
due to one standard code proving to be unbreakable.
until writings were published containing all known techniques to that date.
when an Italian writer explained advanced coding techniques.

 

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Cryptography remained relatively unchanged for a thousand years because most people at that time could not read
This is not correct because while it explains why basic text did not need to be encrypted in the beginning, it does not explain why changes were not made for 1000 years.

Cryptography remained relatively unchanged for a thousand years because languages were so different no standard practice could be applied.

This is not correct because there is no mention of other languages or a standard practice

Cryptography remained relatively unchanged for a thousand years due to one standard code proving to be unbreakable.
This is not correct because there is no mention of one code being unbreakable.

Cryptography remained relatively unchanged for a thousand years until writings were published containing all known techniques to that date.

D is the answer because the second para begins ‘Cryptography remained in relatively basic forms for a thousand years…’ and goes on to describe how an Arab writer explained many of the known techniques.

Cryptography remained relatively unchanged for a thousand years when an Italian writer explained advanced coding techniques.

Finally, this option is not correct because although the Italian Alberti’s work built on Al-Kindi’s writings, the link is between Al-Kindi’s work and new developments in coding.

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